National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges

School Justice Partnership: National Resource Center

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Collateral Consequences

Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Adjudication

Often people do not realize that when youth become involved with the juvenile justice system they face repercussions that extend beyond the immediate consequences. Most people think of juvenile detention or having to appear in front of a judge, but don’t know after a youth has served their term they face additional consequences. An adjudicated delinquent could be expelled from their current school and have a hard time entering a new school.

Additional collateral consequences of juvenile justice involvement include but not limited to: the inability to obtain a firearm license, suspended driving license, difficulties joining the military, restricted school access, trouble obtaining a job, difficulty attaining financial aid for higher education, financial burdens accrued from court fines, and eviction from public housing. Youth, parents, teachers, school administrators, law enforcement and the public may not be aware of these additional penalties faced by youth who have committed a juvenile offense. If a youth is at-risk, before they become involved in the juvenile justice system front-end approaches or diversion should be considered to avoid these future costs.
  • Called “Out” at Home: The One Strike Eviction Policy and Juvenile CourtCalled “Out” at Home: The One Strike Eviction...Name: Called “Out” at Home: The One Strike Eviction Policy an...Description: Excerpt from: Article explores the background and practical operation of the One Strike policy; how it affects the processing of children in juvenile delinquency cases; and suggests legislative, agency, and criminal justice reforms to ameliorate the problem.
  • The Truth About Consequences: Studies Point toward Sparing Use of Formal Juvenile Justice System Processing and IncarcerationThe Truth About Consequences: Studies Point...Name: The Truth About Consequences: Studies Point toward Spar...Description: Excerpt from: Summary of studies that demonstrate that the best public safety outcomes coincide with the least restrictive interventions for youth, rather than more traditional approaches.
  • The Collateral Consequences of an AdjudicationThe Collateral Consequences of an AdjudicationName: The Collateral Consequences of an AdjudicationDescription: Excerpt from: Provides attorneys, judges and other juvenile justice professionals with up to date information on the short term and long term consequences of juvenile adjudications of delinquency.
  • Pennsylvania Juvenile Collateral Consequences ChecklistPennsylvania Juvenile Collateral Consequences...Name: Pennsylvania Juvenile Collateral Consequences ChecklistDescription: Excerpt from: Provides current information on short and long term consequences of juvenile adjudication in PA.
  • Minnesota Expungement Law has Changed!Minnesota Expungement Law has Changed!Name: Minnesota Expungement Law has Changed!Description: Excerpt from: News article briefly explaining the new expungement law that took effect Jan. 1 2015 in MN.
  • Juvenile Delinquency Adjudication, Collateral Consequences, and Expungement of Juvenile RecordsJuvenile Delinquency Adjudication, Collateral...Name: Juvenile Delinquency Adjudication, Collateral Consequen...Description: Excerpt from: A survey of law and policy in Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina and Florida.
  • Juvenile Adjudications and the Armed Career Criminal ActJuvenile Adjudications and the Armed Career...Name: Juvenile Adjudications and the Armed Career Criminal Ac...Description: Excerpt from: The article provides background, overview of juvenile adjudication system, legislative history of ACCA.
  • Juvenile Adjudications and Collateral ConsequencesJuvenile Adjudications and Collateral ConsequencesName: Juvenile Adjudications and Collateral ConsequencesDescription: Excerpt from: Summary of collateral consequences for youth in Maine.
  • Judicial Colloquies: Communicating with Kids in CourtJudicial Colloquies: Communicating with Kids in...Name: Judicial Colloquies: Communicating with Kids in CourtDescription: Excerpt from: Article explains the importance of developmentally appropriate language for youth attending court.
  • Introductory Remarks Given at the Duke Forum for Law & Social Changes Symposium Our Youth at a CrossroadIntroductory Remarks Given at the Duke Forum for...Name: Introductory Remarks Given at the Duke Forum for Law & ...Description: Excerpt from: Professor Janet Wettach addresses some major issues regarding collateral consequences following juvenile adjudication. She also exhorts scholars, lawyers, and policy-makers to educate themselves on the matter and to commit themselves to do their part.
  • Ineffective Assistance and Drastic Punishments: The Duty to Inform Juveniles of Collateral Consequences in a Post-Padilla CourtIneffective Assistance and Drastic Punishments:...Name: Ineffective Assistance and Drastic Punishments: The Dut...Description: Excerpt from: Article explores the role of defense attorneys in communicating collateral consequences of adjudications to juveniles prior to entering plea agreements.
  • Indiana Collateral Consequences Following AdjudicationIndiana Collateral Consequences Following...Name: Indiana Collateral Consequences Following AdjudicationDescription: Excerpt from: List of collateral consequences according to Indiana Code (IC).
  • The Florida Juvenile Collateral Consequences Checklist A Guide for Understanding the Consequences of Juvenile Court InvolvementThe Florida Juvenile Collateral Consequences...Name: The Florida Juvenile Collateral Consequences Checklist ...Description: Excerpt from: Checklist provides attorneys, judges, and other juvenile justice professionals with current information on the immediate and long term consequences of juvenile adjudications of delinquency.
  • The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and ConsequencesThe Growth of Incarceration in the United States:...Name: The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Explo...Description: Excerpt from: Examines research and analysis of the dramatic rise of incarceration rates and its affects. Recommends changes in sentencing policy, prison policy, and social policy to reduce the nation's reliance on incarceration.
  • Immigration Consequences of Juvenile DelinquencyImmigration Consequences of Juvenile DelinquencyName: Immigration Consequences of Juvenile DelinquencyDescription: Excerpt from: List of delinquency dispositions and associated penalties and waivers.
  • For Minors - Consequences of your Arrest, Plea and TrialFor Minors - Consequences of your Arrest, Plea...Name: For Minors - Consequences of your Arrest, Plea and Tria...Description: Excerpt from: List of consequences for adjudicated youth in Florida.
  • Detention and Deportation with Inadequate Due Process: The Devastating Consequences of Juvenile Involvement with Law Enforcement for Immigrant YouthDetention and Deportation with Inadequate Due...Name: Detention and Deportation with Inadequate Due Process: ...Description: Excerpt from: Article examines the consequences of apprehension for immigrant youth, who are under 18 and taken into ICE custody after coming into contact with state or local law enforcement.
  • Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings in California A Handbook for Juvenile Law ProfessionalsCollateral Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency...Name: Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency Proceed...Description: Excerpt from: A handbook for juvenile delinquency defense counsel and others who work with young people to better understand the potential impact of juvenile cases.
  • Checklist – Consequences of Juvenile Adjudications in MassachusettsChecklist – Consequences of Juvenile...Name: Checklist – Consequences of Juvenile Adjudications in M...Description: Excerpt from: Checklist for juvenile defenders to use when advising their clients on the effects of adjudication.
  • Creating Positive Consequences: Improving Education Outcomes for Youth Adjudicated DelinquentCreating Positive Consequences: Improving...Name: Creating Positive Consequences: Improving Education Out...Description: Excerpt from: Article focuses on problem solving at the tail end of the school-to-prison pipeline, once youth have been adjudicated delinquent.
  • Addressing the Collateral Consequences for Young OffendersAddressing the Collateral Consequences for Young...Name: Addressing the Collateral Consequences for Young Offend...Description: Excerpt from: Article explores areas of improvement so that juvenile offenders are not subsequently punished by other systems they encounter. The informed defense attorney is in an ideal position to ensure that clients are not subjected to unwarranted collateral conseq ...
  • Criminal Justice Section Commission on Homelessness and Poverty Standing Committee on Legal Aid & Indigent Defendants Report to the House of DelegatesCriminal Justice Section Commission on...Name: Criminal Justice Section Commission on Homelessness and...Description: Excerpt from: ABA urges all levels of government to increase the opportunities of youth involved with the juvenile or criminal justice systems, and to reduce the collateral consequences of juvenile arrests, adjudications, and convictions.
  • Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Adjudications of DelinquencyCollateral Consequences of Juvenile Adjudications...Name: Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Adjudications of De...Description: Excerpt from: Document is meant to provide general information about the collateral consequences of juvenile adjudications.
  • Strategic Innovations Groups (SIGs)Strategic Innovations Groups (SIGs)Name: Strategic Innovations Groups (SIGs)Description: Excerpt from: A summary of the resource centers (CA, FL, IL, LA, MA, NJ, PA, WA) and their work.
  • Re-Directing Justice: The Consequences of Prosecuting Youth as Adults and the Need to Restore Judicial OversightRe-Directing Justice: The Consequences of...Name: Re-Directing Justice: The Consequences of Prosecuting Y...Description: Excerpt from: An overview of the consequences of Colorado’s direct filing policy (prosecuting children in adult criminal courts).
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention